An analysis of the use of illegal drugs in america

Violent crime has fallen, attitudes towards drugs have shifted and the Great Recession has squeezed public budgets.

An analysis of the use of illegal drugs in america

Race, Crime, and Punishment Just as conscious and unconscious racial notions helped define the drug problem, they have also helped shape political and policy responses to that problem.

National Study Shows "Gateway" Drugs Lead to Cocaine Use

The legislative history of federal crack sentencing laws, for example, provides reason "to suspect that regardless of the objectives Congress was pursuing, it would have shown more restraint in fashioning the crack penalties or more interest in amending them in ensuing years, if the penalties did not apply almost exclusively to blacks.

Politicians have been able to reap the electoral rewards of endorsing harsh drug policies because the group that suffered most from those policies-black Americans-lacked the numbers to use the political process to secure a different strategy. It could have restricted prison to only the most serious drug offenders e.

Instead, federal and state governments embraced harsh penal sanctions to battle the use of drugs and their sale to consumers.

Costs of Substance Abuse

But the choice of arrest and imprisonment as the primary anti-drug strategy evokes the infamous phrase from the Vietnam War: A Human Rights Framework For the War on Drugs In a fair, equitable, and non-discriminatory criminal justice system, sanctions should be imposed equally on offending populations.

Yet the racial patterns of persons arrested and incarcerated on drug charges are distantly related, at best, to racial patterns of drug offending.

There may be explanations for the disparate impact, but can it be reconciled with principles of equal protection and non-discrimination? United States Law Drug laws are race-neutral on their face.

An analysis of the use of illegal drugs in america

Their enforcement is also ostensibly race-neutral, with law enforcement officials insisting they enforce the law without bias and in response to community concerns. Under longstanding constitutional jurisprudence in the United States, facially race-neutral governmental policies do not violate the guarantee of equal protection unless there is both discriminatory impact and discriminatory purpose.

As Professor Lawrence Tribe has noted, the U. Supreme Court has decided that every lawsuit involving claims of racial discrimination directed at facially race-neutral rules would be conducted as a search for a "bigoted-decision-maker". If such actors cannot be found-and the standards for finding them are tough indeed-then there has been no violation of the equal protection clause.

An analysis of the use of illegal drugs in america

Harsher sentences for crack cocaine offenses compared to powder have repeatedly passed that test, with the courts easily deciding that legislators were pursuing a legitimate goal in trying to curtail drug abuse and that more severe sentences for crack were rationally related to that goal.

As law professor David Cole has observed, racial inequalities in the criminal justice system "do not step from explicit and intentional race or class discrimination, but they are problems of inequality nonetheless.

It offers no relief from high rates of black incarceration that have been produced by "racial politics, not by a crime wave," [95] and that reflect as well as contribute to the perpetuation of white dominance.

Tied to the anachronistic requirement of intent, equal protection jurisprudence has not been able to provide relief to victims of ostensibly color-blind practices that so deeply prejudice black Americans. It has thus failed to achieve one of its central purposes: Racial Discrimination Under International Human Rights Law Equality among all people, including among persons of different races, has been deemed "the most important principle imbuing and inspiring the concept of human rights.

The equality inherent in all human beings regardless of race and the concomitant right of all human beings to be protected against racial discrimination is affirmed in the core human rights treaties that have followed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is the most complete expression of the international community's commitment to the principle of racial equality and the right to be free of racial discrimination. Although the Committee "merely observes and comments on States Parties' practices, the comments should be acted on accordingly.

By Peter Phillips, Lew Brown and Bridget Thornton

The Committee's country-specific observations and general comments may be considered the official "jurisprudence" of ICERD. The Committee does not have any power to compel a State to accept and act on its recommendations and there is no system of sanctions for States who refuse to do so.

The Committee has reviewed two United States periodic reports, [] but has never directly addressed racial discrimination in the U. It defines the prohibited discrimination as: The Committee has explained that "the definition of racial discrimination in Article 1 expressly extends beyond measures which are explicitly discriminatory to encompass measures which are discriminatory in fact and effect.

Compliance with ICERD requires ensuring that domestic legislation prohibits all forms of racial discrimination as defined by the treaty. Inthe Committee recommended that the United States take the appropriate measures to review legislation and policies to "ensure effective protections against any form of racial discrimination and any unjustifiably disparate impact.

The Committee noted that the definition of racial discrimination used in [U. In this regard, the Committee notes that indirect-or de facto-discrimination occurs where an apparently neutral provision, criterion or practice would put persons of a particular racial, ethnic or national origin at a disadvantage compared with other persons, unless that provision, criterion or practice is objectively justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary.Illegal Drug Use.

Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir. Data are for the U.S. Prevalence. Percent of persons aged 12 years and over with any illicit drug use in the past month: % () Percent of persons aged 12 years and over with any nonmedical use of a psychotherapeutic drug in the past month: % ().

Commonly Used Illegal Drugs. Commonly used illegal drugs include marijuana, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines and methamphetamines and club drugs. This list provides examples of their commercial and street names, how they are administered, their effects, health risks and other information.

Sep 08,  · Special Report America's Pain: Illegal Drug Use on the Rise in U.S. He says that the rise in the use of illicit drugs from to is of concern, but the survey does show that we are. Researchers used the statistical technique of latent class analysis to describe distinct patterns of marijuana use across age using data from nearly 10, participants in the Monitoring the Future study.

Longer-term marijuana use (extending from age 18 into the late 20s or beyond) was associated with increased risk of self-reported health problems at age Knowing the size of illegal drug markets allows us to estimate revenues going to criminal organizations, make better decisions about treatment and prevention, and evaluate drug policies.

Kobe believes that in an analysis of the "harm" of illegal drugs in America, researchers should consider the definition of harm from the viewpoint of the users, the dealers, and the government. Kobe's ideas are in line with __________. Program description of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America. The Programs that Work section of the Promising Practices Network (PPN) site features descriptions of evaluated programs that improve outcomes for children. PPN programs are organized by four major outcome areas, and sub-categorized by indicators within each outcome area. Programs are also categorized by topic area and by evidence . The Quest Diagnostics Health Trends™ study is based on analysis of the company's de-identified laboratory data, believed to be one of the largest nationally representative datasets of objective laboratory information of patients prescribed opioids and other commonly abused medications.

Big Changes in Drug Use. From to , the amount of cocaine consumed in the United States declined by about 50 percent — an unprecedented change over five years.

Drug Facts | DEA

The figure below shows three estimates. During . Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

When a psychoactive drug enters the user's body, it induces an intoxicating regardbouddhiste.comlly, recreational drugs are in three categories: depressants (drugs that induce a feeling of relaxation and calm); stimulants.

FastStats - Illegal Drug Use