The Holocaust also called Ha-Shoah in Hebrew refers to the period from January 30, - when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany - to May 8,when the war in Europe officially ended.
Based on several sources; see references Jewish massive settlement in Middle and Eastern Europe has been recorded since the end of the 11th century.
The first arriving Jews were merchants dealing between east and the west who were referred to as Radhanites. One of them was Ibrahim Ibn Yacub, who authored the first known extensive article about Poland, took a journey from his hometown - Toledo - in Moslem Spain to the Holy Christian Roman Empire in or and then he went to the Slavonic countries.
The map below illustrates the migration waves of Jews into central Europe. At the end of feudal disintegration in Central and Eastern Europe occured in the 13th and 14th centuries the rulers encouraged Jewish immigration.
In the 14th and 15th centuries the Jews were mainly middlemen in trade between Poland, Hungary, Turkey and the Italian colonies on the Black Sea. Jewish immigrants headed east to Poland during the reign of Casimir the Great, who encouraged Jewish settlement by extending royal protection to them.
One of the first mentions about Jewish settlements was in Lwow about Other places are also mentioned in the second half of the 14th century. In the 's Polish towns gave shelter to Jewish refugees from Silesia which was then ruled by the Habsburgs.
A painting by Mevlut Akyildiz. It is believed that the destiny of our Turkels' forebears begins with the expulsion of Jews from Spain in More than"Sephardic" Jews spread out throughout the Mediterranean world, welcomed by the Ottoman Empire in Spain had been one of the centers of Jewish life at that time, a place where Jews had flourished for a thousand years the first seven centuries under Moslem rule.
The most fortunate of the expelled Jews succeeded in escaping to Turkey. In Jews were ordered out of the center of Krakow and allowed to settle in the "Jewish town" of Kazimierz.
In the same year, Alexander Jagiellon, following the example of Spanish rulers, banished the Jews from Lithuania. For several years they took shelter in Poland until they were allowed back to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in At that time Jews lived in about 85 towns in Poland.
Their total number was around 18, in Poland and 6, in Lithuania, only 0. In the 16th and the first half of the 17th Jewish population grew consierably, up toJews in Poland, about five per cent of the total population of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
New arrivals were due to "Sephardic" Jews, who had been driven away from Spain and Portugal. Still we are not sure when exactly they arrived to the Eastern and Central Europe.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the Jews were required to defend the towns they lived in either by service or by monetary contributions. Sometimes Jews fought on both sides, leading to family tragedies. During Poland's wars with SwedenRussia and Turkey Jews provided recruits and participated in the city's defense.
There are war stories about relevant places such as BuczaczTrembowla see also here and Lwow see also here. In the Cossack uprising under Chmielnicki broke up. There was a breakthrough in the history of both the "Commonwealth" and Polish Jewry.Hatred towards Jews became a powerful force in European politics.
Many people believed that the Jews were the cause of all problems in their countries.
For an example, when revolutionaries killed Czar Alexander II of Russia, they believed that the Jews were to blame. The history of the beginnings of a Jewish presence in Europe cannot be thought of as a linear and continuous development.
The evidence is fragmentary, random, and often inconsistent. The earliest recorded presence of Jews in medieval Europe is that of colonies of oriental or “Syrian” merchants. A Resource for Turkic and Jewish History in Russia and Ukraine Last Updated: November 20, Read about The Jews of Khazaria - the best general-interest book about the Khazars in English.
Order the improved 3rd edition (February ) in hardcover format: The Jews of Khazaria from regardbouddhiste.com from regardbouddhiste.com in Canada. At the same time, after the French Revolution and the emancipation of European Jewry, the vague spiritual bonds of the Jewish people began to express themselves in more concrete, though not .
The History of Eastern European Jews with implication on the 'Turkel Tribe' genealogy. The Holocaust (also called Ha-Shoah in Hebrew) refers to the period from January 30, - when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany - to May 8, , when the war in Europe officially ended.
During this time, Jews in Europe were subjected to progressively harsher persecution that ultimately led to the murder of 6,, Jews ( million of these being children) and the destruction of.