The Environmental Impacts of Transportation Author: Jean-Paul Rodrigue Transportation systems, from infrastructures to vehicle operations, have environmental impacts ranging from noise, the emission of pollutants to climate change. From one side, transportation activities support increasing mobility demands for passengers and freight, while on the other, transport activities are associated with growing levels of environmental externalities.
The environmental impact of irrigation includes the changes in quantity and quality of soil and water as a result of irrigation and the ensuing effects on natural and social conditions at the tail-end and downstream of the irrigation scheme.
The impacts stem from the changed hydrological conditions owing to the installation and operation of the scheme. An irrigation scheme often draws water from the river and distributes it over the irrigated area.
As a hydrological result it is found that: These may be called direct effects. Effects on soil and water quality are indirect and complex, and subsequent impacts on natural, ecological and socio-economic conditions are intricate.
In some, but not all instances, water logging and soil salinization can result. However, irrigation can also be used, together with soil drainage, to overcome soil salinization by leaching excess salts from the vicinity of the root zone.
As a hydrological result it is found that the level of the water descends. Irrigation projects can have large benefits, but the negative side effects are often overlooked.
As a result of this massive diversion of freshwater, lakes, rivers, and creeks are running dry, severely altering or stressing surrounding ecosystems, and contributing to the extinction of many aquatic species. Forannual average soil loss by sheet, rill and wind erosion on non-federal US land was estimated to be On uncultivated cropland, the recent average total soil loss has been 2.
The amount due to meat production is some fraction of that due to livestock. However, many estimates use different sectoral assignment of some emissions.
Over the decade throughatmospheric methane content increased by an average of only 6 Tg per year because nearly all natural and anthropogenic methane emission was offset by degradationwhile atmospheric carbon dioxide increased by nearly 15, Tg per year. Although reduction of methane emissions would have a rapid effect on warming, the expected effect would be small.
Management practices that can mitigate GHG emissions from production of livestock and feed have been identified. Excessive use of vegetation by grazing can be especially conducive to land degradation in dry areas.
There are several published estimates of water use associated with livestock and meat production, but the amount of water use assignable to such production is seldom estimated. However, it would be misleading simply to assign that associated rangeland green water use to beef production, partly because that evapotranspirational use occurs even in the absence of cattle.
Even when cattle are present, most of that associated water use can be considered assignable to production of terrestrial environmental values, because it produces root and residue biomass important for erosion control, stabilization of soil structure, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, support of numerous primary consumers, many of which support higher trophic levels, etc.
Withdrawn water from surface and groundwater sources is used for livestock watering, and in some cases is also used for irrigation of forage and feed crops. Impairment of water quality by manure and other substances in runoff and infiltrating water is a concern, especially where intensive livestock production is carried out.
In the US, in a comparison of 32 industries, the livestock industry was found to have a relatively good record of compliance with environmental regulations pursuant to the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act,  but pollution issues from large livestock operations can sometimes be serious where violations occur.
Various measures have been suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency, among others, which can help reduce livestock damage to streamwater quality and riparian environments.
Non-solar energy is specified, because solar energy is used in such processes as photosynthesis and hay-drying. Changes in livestock production practices influence the environmental impact of meat production, as illustrated by some beef data.
In the US beef production system, practices prevailing in are estimated to have involved 8. These include waste reduction by conversion of human-inedible crop residues to food, use of livestock as an alternative to herbicides for control of invasive and noxious weeds and other vegetation management,  use of animal manure as fertilizer as a substitute for those synthetic fertilizers that require considerable fossil fuel use for manufacture, grazing use for wildlife habitat enhancement,  and carbon sequestration in response to grazing practices,   among others.
Conversely, according to some studies appearing in peer-reviewed journals, the growing demand for meat is contributing to significant biodiversity loss as it is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction.Topic: Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on the world today.
The term globalization is the process of transformation of local phenomena into global ones. Globalization―Positive or Negative? BLM questions of the role of human rights, social and environmental impacts of globalization things to be concerned about?
There are many arguments for and against globalization. As citizens and consumers in a developed country, should we be aware of the potential impact our purchases of food.
Effects of water pollution. You will notice in the previous pages that water pollution is very harmful to humans, animals and water life. The effects can be catastrophic, depending on the kind of chemicals, concentrations of the pollutants and where there are polluted.
The Positive and Negative effects of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution had many positive and negative impacts on society. The positive include cheaper clothes, more job opportunities, and improvement in transportation. The Institute of HeartMath, one of a number of scientific bodies that study the effects of positive and negative attitudes and emotions, also links them to health and disease.
Attitudes at work have long-reaching effects in the workplace environment and beyond. The s and s were crucial decades in the realization of the negative environmental impacts of human activities and the need for regulations.
the Clean Air Act of set clear air quality standards and expectations for both stationary (e.g. a power plant) and mobile (e.g. an automobile) sources of air pollutants. positive or.