In this theory, the US is often assumed to be somehow in advance of the rest of the world and the models pioneered in that country for increasing the social space accorded to lesbian and gay lives are generalised as suitable models for lesbians and gay men in other countries to adopt. To what extent have indigenous Japanese understandings of same-sex desire, fashioned in a religious and political climate quite different from that in western countries, been influenced by western models of lesbian and gay identity?
Number of Individuals with Internet Access: Despite increasing reliance on digital technologies in every area of communication in Italy, the term "press" still mainly connotes the daily newspapers.
The first characteristic is the one most often stressed by analysts of the Italian press. Paolo Mancini reports that aggregate daily newspaper circulation in Italy stood at per thousand citizens inand he remarked that this is very low indeed when one considers that the comparable figure is near in Norway Throughout most of the twentieth century, readership of daily newspapers was constant at about five million.
There was a small increase in the s, fueled by a turn to commercialization of the press, to a high 6. This figure of 6 million was computed by taking the annual circulation of daily periodicals, 2.
This also means that aggregate daily newspaper circulation has decreased to per thousand persons. There are several direct and indirect causes of the low-readership phenomenon. A direct cause is related to the logistics of matching the reader with the paper.
As is typical in other European nations, newspaper distribution in Italy is conducted almost exclusively via newsstands. However, for a variety of reasons related to permit requirements and attempts by operators to limit competition, the number of newsstands in Italy per persons is below that in Germany and France.
Another technical problem is the fact that prices are determined by a joint committee of government and business, and have inevitably crept up.
In addition to pointing to availability of newsstands and price per copy, we can address the obvious question: True, Italians are not avid readers, but this statement needs to be qualified. According to a survey conducted in Lumley 4nearly two thirds of the population reported never reading anything at all.
Regional differences are significant, however. Almost four fifths of the population spoke a local dialect and were not very familiar with Italian. Italian is still in the process of becoming the language that every Italian is comfortable with, and much of the new vocabulary, including technical and specialized language transliterated from other languages, was slow to trickle down to the less educated tier of the population.
More often than not, Italian journalists writing for major daily papers did not engage in concerted efforts to translate or explain unfamiliar words to their reading public.
Literacy rates increased in the next two decades, and most Italians were now able to read a newspaper. Yet, they still chose not to do so, for a variety of reasons, including alienation from bureaucracy and journalistic jargon used by the press, the non-availability of popular magazines and dailies, and the fact that a high proportion of the potential readership, women in particular, felt excluded from the mainstream public sphere Lumley 4.
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