Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures.
Everything important that has happened to humans since the Paleolithic is due to environmental influences. History as a whole reflects these environmental differences and forces.
Culture is largely irrelevant: Diamond proceeds systematically through the main phases of history in all parts of the world and tries to show, with detailed arguments, how each phase, in each major region, is explainable largely by environmental forces.
The final outcome of these environmentally caused processes is the rise and dominance of Europe. The essential argument is very clear and simple.
Almost all of history after the Ice Ages happened in the temperate midlatitudes of Eurasia.
The natural environment of this large region is better for human progress than are the tropical environments of the world, and the other temperate or midlatitude regions -- South Africa, Australia, and midlatitude North and South America -- could not be central for human progress because they are much smaller than Eurasia and are isolated from it and from each other.
Although many civilizations arose and flourished in temperate Eurasia, only two were ultimately crucial, because of their especially favorable environments: Some years ago China's environment proved itself to be New historical criticism essay to Europe's in several crucial ways.
Therefore Europe in the end was triumphant. Diamond distinguishes between the "ultimate factors" that explain "the broadest patterns of history" and the "proximate factors," which are effects of the "ultimate factors" and explain short-term and local historical processes.
The "ultimate" factors are environmental. The most important of these "ultimate" factors are the natural conditions that led to the rise of food production.
Those world regions that became agricultural very early gained a permanent advantage in history. The "ultimate" causes led, in much later times, to regional variations in technology, social organization, and health; these, then, were the "proximate" causes of modern history.
More than half of Guns, Germs, and Steel is devoted to elucidating the "ultimate" causes, explaining why differing environments led to differing rates in the acquisition of agriculture, and explaining how the resulting differences largely determined the "fate" his word of different peoples.
The "ultimate" causes are three primordial environmental facts: The first and most basic cause is the shape of the continents: Eurasia, Africa, and the Americas.
Eurasia has an east-west axis; the other two have north-south axes. This has had "enormous, sometimes tragic consequences" for human history p. Africa and the Americas were unable to progress throughout most of history because their "axes" are north-south, not east-west.
But Diamond is not really talking about axes; mostly he is making a rather subtle argument about the climatic advantages that in his view midlatitude regions have over tropical regions.
The world's largest continuous zone of "temperate" climates lies in a belt stretching across Eurasia from southern Europe in the west to China in the east. Rather persistently neglecting the fact that much of this zone is inhospitable desert and high mountains, Diamond describes this east-west-trending midlatitude zone of Eurasia as the world region that possessed the very best environment for the invention and development of agriculture and, consequently, for historical dynamism.
Why would one expect the origins and early development of agriculture to take place in the midlatitude belt of Eurasia? Diamond notes, correctly, that there are thought to have been several more or less independent centers of origin, and only two lie in the temperate belt of Eurasia: China and the Near East his "Fertile Crescent".
Diamond needs -- for his central argument about environmental causes in history -- to show that these two midlatitude Eurasian centers were earlier and more important than tropical centers New Guinea, Ethiopia, West Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Mesoamerica, the AndesThis webpage is for Dr.
Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
New Criticism was a formalist movement in literary theory that dominated American literary criticism in the middle decades of the 20th century.
It emphasized close reading, particularly of poetry, to discover how a work of literature functioned as a self-contained, self-referential aesthetic regardbouddhiste.com movement derived its name from John Crowe Ransom's book The New Criticism. - Perspectives on New Historicism, Feminist Criticism and Deconstruction in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter Introduction Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter has been a highly debatable topic of numerous critical essays, written by scholars who approach the novel from various perspectives of literary criticism.
The New Conservatism: Cultural Criticism and the Historians' Debate (Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought) [Jürgen Habermas, Shierry Weber Nicholsen] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Social theorist Jürgen Habermas reveals yet another facet of his extraordinary talents in these insightful.
New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
Introduction to Literature Michael Delahoyde. New Historicism. Historical Criticism insisted that to understand a literary piece, we need to understand the author's biography and social background, ideas circulating at the time, and the cultural milieu.
This school of criticism fell into disfavor as the New Critics emerged.