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National Assessment Governing Board. Writing framework for the National Assessment of Educational Progress, pre-publication edition. It follows that writing assessments aligned with the Standards should adhere to the distribution of writing purposes across grades outlined by NAEP.
Focus and coherence in instruction and assessment While the Standards delineate specific expectations in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, each standard need not be a separate focus for instruction and assessment.
Often, several standards can be addressed by a single rich task. When drawing evidence from literary and informational texts per Writing standard 9, students are also demonstrating their comprehension skill in relation to specific standards in Reading.
When discussing something they have read or written, students are also demonstrating their speaking and listening skills.
The CCR anchor standards themselves provide another source of focus and coherence.
The ten CCR anchor standards for Writing cover numerous text types and subject areas. This means that students can develop mutually reinforcing skills and exhibit mastery of standards for reading and writing across a range of texts and classrooms. What is not covered by the Standards The Standards should be recognized for what they are not as well as what they are.
The most important intentional design limitations are as follows: The Standards define what all students are expected to know and be able to do, not how teachers should teach.
For instance, the use of play with young children is not specified by the Standards, but it is welcome as a valuable activity in its own right and as a way to help students meet the expectations in this document. Furthermore, while the Standards make references to some particular forms of content, including mythology, foundational U.
The Standards must therefore be complemented by a well-developed, content-rich curriculum consistent with the expectations laid out in this document.
While the Standards focus on what is most essential, they do not describe all that can or should be taught. A great deal is left to the discretion of teachers and curriculum developers.
The aim of the Standards is to articulate the fundamentals, not to set out an exhaustive list or a set of restrictions that limits what can be taught beyond what is specified herein.
The Standards do not define the nature of advanced work for students who meet the Standards prior to the end of high school. For those students, advanced work in such areas as literature, composition, language, and journalism should be available. This work should provide the next logical step up from the college and career readiness baseline established here.
The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are well below or well above grade-level expectations.
No set of grade-specific standards can fully reflect the great variety in abilities, needs, learning rates, and achievement levels of students in any given classroom.
However, the Standards do provide clear signposts along the way to the goal of college and career readiness for all students. It is also beyond the scope of the Standards to define the full range of supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with special needs. At the same time, all students must have the opportunity to learn and meet the same high standards if they are to access the knowledge and skills necessary in their post-high school lives.
Each grade will include students who are still acquiring English. For those students, it is possible to meet the standards in reading, writing, speaking, and listening without displaying native-like control of conventions and vocabulary.
The Standards should also be read as allowing for the widest possible range of students to participate fully from the outset and as permitting appropriate accommodations to ensure maximum participation of students with special education needs.
For example, for students with disabilities reading should allow for the use of Braille, screen-reader technology, or other assistive devices, while writing should include the use of a scribe, computer, or speech-to-text technology.
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In a similar vein, speaking and listening should be interpreted broadly to include sign language. While the ELA and content area literacy components described herein are critical to college and career readiness, they do not define the whole of such readiness.
Students require a wide-ranging, rigorous academic preparation and, particularly in the early grades, attention to such matters as social, emotional, and physical development and approaches to learning. Teachers of senior English classes, for example, are not required to devote 70 percent of reading to information texts.
Rather, 70 percent of student reading across the grade should be informational.Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
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