Dominika Motak Studia Religiologica 45 2s. This particular perspective of a religion-like religioid character makes up an individual foundation for religion, but it can also express itself in other cultural pursuits, like science or art.
Introduction to Microsociological Approaches 1. Macro and Micro The sociological theories of Marx, Durkheim, Weber, and Parsons and the functional school are primarily large scale, macrosociological, and structural.
These theories were developed in the latter half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries in Europe with Parsons adapting these theories and developing a similar model in the United States. These theories were developed by European social theorists who were attempting to understand the new social world of a modern, industrial, urban society.
These classical theories established sociology as an academic discipline, their definition of the social world established the scope of sociological study, and Simmel essays on religion methodologies determined how sociology would be studied and applied.
In North America a different set of questions occupied late nineteenth and early twentieth century sociologists, and a different sociological tradition became established.
North American writers were more concerned with understanding the bases of social action and interaction among individual members of society. Since it is these interactions that define the the social world, underly social structures, and create and maintain societies, sociologists need to understand these.
These microsociological or interaction perspectives are of several main types. Symbolic interaction examines meaning, action, and interaction at the micro level, and was developed by United States sociologists George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer, with Erving Goffman, a Canadian, being one of its primary practitioners Wallace and Wolf, Ch.
A related approach is that of ethnomethodology, originally developed by Harold Garfinkel. This is referred to as interpretive sociology or interpretive analysis, and is related to the phenomenological approach of the Austrian-American Alfred Schutz Wallace and Wolf, Ch.
Contemporary sociologists have adapted and developed these ideas and have created a great variety of mixed interaction approaches. Some of the ideas that led to the these microsociological theories are examined in the following sections.
A short summary of some of the different aspects of these two levels of sociology is provided first. The subject of macrosociological theory is the large-scale structures and features of society — social class, division of labour, power, forms of authority, rationalization, and broad historical developments.
In contrast, the subject of microsociology is the individual interacting with other individuals, often in small group settings.
Where the settings are within larger scale structures, the micro focus is still on how individuals interpret the situation and interact with other individuals in these settings. The classical approaches often began with what could be considered micro concepts, but use these to develop macrosociological theories.
For example, Marx begins with a micro concept, the commodity, but derives this from a study of capitalism as a whole, and uses it to explain the structure of this system.
The theories of Weber and Parsons are concerned with social action, and Parsons calls his theory an action theory, so it might be thought that these two writers span macro and micro.
While the action approaches of Weber and Parsons could have led to an interaction perspective, neither author really develops such an approach. Weber is concerned with meaning, but does not devote much attention to defining this, and the bulk of his writings is devoted to groups, organizations, history, and structures of power.
Parsons begins with the individual act in a situation, and considers interaction, but moves quickly from this to systems and needs. Interaction underlies these, but is not the primary focus of Parsons. The macro theories concentrate on average action and the regularities that are common to large numbers of social actors.
The micro focus is on individual action, its meaning, how interaction occurs, and the uniqueness of individuals and the self b. The macro approach to social action tends to be determined by large scale structural features of society or the cultural and value systems.
In these theories, there is often little room for, or analysis of, the manner in which people are creative in their interaction with others. That is, action is determined by social norms, cultural values, laws, religion, social class, consciousness, and ideology.
These effect of these macro forces on social action is determinate and can be examined empirically in sociological studies e.
In contrast, the interaction approach considers humans to be creative, with unique selves and individual forms of interaction. For these sociologists, social action and interaction can only be studied by carefully examining the ways in which symbols, structures, and organizations are understood by individuals and how different individuals come to interpret interaction differently.
The development of the child, socialization, and the formation of self and individual identity form a large part of the interaction perspective.
In this perspective, personality and identity are not determined biologically, but are developed actively within the social environment. While the symbolic interaction approach identifies symbols as important, these are not so determined as the values, norms, or consciousness of the classical theorists and Parsons.
Rather, sociologists working within the interaction perspective argue that the basis for social interaction is "a common set of symbols and understandings possessed by people in a group" Wallace and Wolf, p.
These are developed through socialization and continual interaction with other individuals. The sociologist must also understand how the development of the self occurs as children and adults "interpret, evaluate, define, and map out their own action" Wallace and Wolf, p.
A third difference is the underlying approach to social action.Essays on Religion by Georg Simmel, Horst J Helle (Editor), Ludwig Nieder starting at $ Essays on Religion has 1 available editions to buy at Alibris 3 Days Only | Save $ Essay on Marx, Weber, Durkheim, and Simmel: the Individual & Society Words May 16th, 15 Pages Each of the four classical theorists Marx, Weber, Durkheim, and Simmel had different theories of the relationship between society and the individual.
Introduction to Sociology. Concerts, sports games, and political rallies can have very large crowds. When you attend one of these events, you may know only the people you came with.
Northeast Arkansas Regional Library Event 05/25/ NARL is a consortium of public libraries from Clay, Greene and Randolph Counties. Karl Mannheim (* März in Budapest; † 9. Januar in London), ursprünglich Károly Manheim, war ein Soziologe und Philosoph österreichisch-ungarischer Herkunft, jüdischer Religion, deutscher und britischer Staatsbürgerschaft und kosmopolitischer Gesinnung. Introduction to Sociology. Concerts, sports games, and political rallies can have very large crowds. When you attend one of these events, you may know only the people you came with.
The Metropolis and Mental Life (German: Die Großstädte und das Geistesleben) is a essay by the German sociologist, Georg Simmel. Later, in Religion, Simmel thus described the idea of God as a tranquilizing force It is clear, though, that emotions associated with the idea of God can be traced back to the relation of individuals to the whole.
Simmel, A Contribution to the Sociology of Religion . Sociology November 9, Introduction to Microsociological Approaches.
1. Macro and Micro. The sociological theories of Marx, Durkheim, Weber, and Parsons and the functional school are primarily large scale, macrosociological, and structural.